The "Learner-centered Psychological Principles" is being divided into four sub categories: Cognitive and Metacognitive factors; Motivational and Affective factors; Developmental and Social Factors; and Individual Differences factors.
Cognitive and Metacognitive factors
1. Nature of the Learning Process
The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience.
2. Goals of the Learning Process
The successful learner, over time and with support and istructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.
3. Construction of Knowledge
The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways.
4. Strategic Thinking
The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals.
5. Thinking about Thinking
Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking.
6. Context of Learning
Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices.
Motivational and Affective Factors
7. Motivational and emotional influences in learning
What and how much is learned is influenced by the learner's motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual's emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of
8. Intrinsic Motivation to Learn
The learner's creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by the tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control.
9. Effects of Motivation on Effort
Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learner's motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without
Development and Social Factors
10. Developmental Influences in learning
As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional and social domains is taken into account.
11. Social Influences on Learning
Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations and communication with others.
Individual Differences factors
12. Individual Differences in Learning
Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity.
13. Learning and Diversity
Learning is most effective when differences in learners' linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account.
14. Standards and Assessment
Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as the learning progress - including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment - are integral parts of the learning process.